Not sure where this was done, but I took a Microbiology class with Prof. McCutcheon at Massasoit Community College & hand sanitizer actually just brings whatever germs/bacteria,etc. to the surface & it stays there til you actually wash them off. It's more dangerous. It's better to use soap & warm water; it's the friction that helps get rid of things. It's the chemical make-up of alcohol that makes it so good. I highly recommend you speak with a Chemistry teacher or professor for that. I also recommend Dr. Marganian at Bridgewater State College, who is a great Chemistry professor.